sábado, junho 09, 2007

Liberdade de Expressão: Um Direito Fundamental

O episódio do fechamento da RCTV pelo governo Chavez, na Venezuela, é um fato que provocou e ainda continua provocando manifestações diversas lá e em outros tantos países.
É um ato de força que, antes de mais nada, demonstra a fraqueza de um governante que não admite ser contrariado.
A liberdade de expressão e de opinião é um direito fundamental que ultrapassa as fronteiras de qualquer país. É inerente aos regimes onde o dissenso não só é estimulado como se estimula o consenso. Dissenso e consenso só podem existir onde haja liberdade de expressão.
Nesse sentido, podemos classificar os regimes em regimes abertos e regimes fechados. Nestes, prevalece a vontade exclusiva do governante ou do partido no governo. Naqueles, a vontade do governante se põe em segundo plano, por privilegiar-se o direito à informação e à formação de opiniões.
A pluralidade de opiniões contribui para o enriquecimento de um país ou de uma nação. A opinião centralizada emburrece ou induz apenas ao pensamento linear, ou seja, ao modo de pensar do controlador dos meios de comunicação e divulgação.
Afirma-se que a liberdade de expressão é inerente ao regime democrático. De fato, não pode haver democracia sem liberdade de expressão e de opinião. Mas essa liberdade pode existir, também, em outros regimes, como o regime monárquico. Principalmente na monarquia constitucional, quer esta se baseie em constituição escrita ou não escrita. Caso mais expressivo dessa situação é o da Grã-Bretanha.
A perda da liberdade, a limitação dos direitos de um povo pode resultar de atos externos ao seu território, ou mesmo de atos internos. Aqueles podem ser conseqüência de uma derrota militar, e estes, de uma revolução intestina ou de um golpe de estado.
Podemos classificar dois tipos de revolução: a revolução armada e a revolução silenciosa. Muitos são os exemplos históricos de revolução armada: a americana de 1776, a francesa de 1789, a bolchevista de 1917, a maoista de 1949, a cubano-castrista de 1959.
A revolução silenciosa é a que se processa sem o emprego das armas, utilizando, talvez, um dos meios mais convincentes de aceitação e acolhimento de uma nova ordem social: a liberdade de formação de opiniões, pela via do exercício do direito de expressão.
Todavia, a liberdade é sempre frágil, tal qual um infante a merecer o carinho, a atenção e os cuidados de quem o preze. Diferentemente deste, que às vezes, merece reprimendas, a liberdade e os direitos dela decorrentes, se sobrepõem a qualquer tentativa de repressão.
Liberdade reprimida é ausência de liberdade. A liberdade é plural, o que, no entanto, não se confunde com o sentido de liberdades. Liberdade plural é um direito inalienável de todos e de cada um de nós. A liberdade consistente no direito à vida, no direito de ir e vir, no direito de se expressar, de opinar, de concordar ou de discordar. Liberdades, em sentido vulgar, é um abuso de direito. Como na expressão "agir com muita liberdade". Isso porque nossa liberdade não pode chegar ao ponto de tirar a liberdade de meu próximo, de meu vizinho. O que corresponde a dizer que meu direito termina onde começa o do meu próximo.
Sabe-se que uma emissora de rádio ou de televisão dependem de concessão governamental para funcionar. No entanto, a concessão governamental se justifica apenas como medida regulatória ou de ordenamento da difusão de suas ondas eletromagnéticas, por diferentes canais de transmissão, objetivando o interesse público. Não podem essas emissoras ficar submetidas a qualquer tipo de censura governamental. Censura de conteúdo. Censura prévia ou "a posteriori". Ao menos onde o Estado respeite direitos individuais e coletivos, e não seja dominado por qualquer pessoa ou partido. Principalmente onde nem mesmo a divergência política seja admitida.
A História está repleta de casos a demonstrarem a subversão da ordem a partir do emprego de meio democráticos de ascensão ao poder. A Alemanha de Hitler é um caso típico. A Venezuela de Chavez é o mais recente, diante do quadro político ali reinante. A dominação exercida pelo governante de plantão sobre a sociedade acaba por conduzir à divisão do tecido social. Leva à luta interna entre irmãos e famílias. À submissão individual às ordens do "big brother", à prisão dos recalcitrantes, à perda de vidas e ao exílio involuntário.
Não por menos, este articulista, na sua condição de membro da Comissão de Defesa da República e da Democracia (da OAB/SP), propôs moção de apoio aos estudantes venezuelanos que reclamam liberdade de expressão e contra o cerceamento perpetrado por seu governo contra esse direito. A moção foi aprovada por unanimidade da Comissão, devendo seu texto ser divulgado ainda neste mês de junho de 2007.
Que a liberdade de expressão é um direito fundamental, basta ler a Carta das Nações Unidas e da Organização dos Estados Americanos (OEA), entre outros. E, por ser, de fato e de direito, um direito fundamental do ser humano, seu cerceamento por qualquer governo constitui uma ofensa que não pode deixar de ser condenada por todos quantos prezam pela liberdade e pelos direitos individuais.
Assim, governante algum -- principalmente quando eleito pela vias democráticas -- pode se arrogar o direito de suspender ou cancelar uma concessão. Esta não pertence à emissora nem ao governo. Pertence, isto sim, a toda a comunidade, que tem o direito à diversidade de opiniões.

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